Kohli was competing against teammate Rohit, former India skipper MS Dhoni, Sri Lanka pacer Lasith Malinga, former Sri Lanka skipper Kumar Sangakkara, Australia pacer Mitchell Starc and South Africa batsman AB de Villiers.
"My only intention was to make winning contributions for the team and I just strive to do that in every game. Stats just become the byproduct of what you want to do on the field," Kohli said after winning the award.
Rohit, who is India's vice-captain in the limited-overs format, lauded Kohli for winning big at the ICC awards.
"Great achievement," Rohit posted a comment with a clapping hands emoji while congratulating Kohli.
Kohli is the only player to score 10,000-plus ODI runs in this decade. He smashed 39 centuries and 48 fifties during this period with an average of 61.83.
In 2019, Kohli had surpassed former skipper MS Dhoni to become India's most successful Test skipper. After winning the Test against West Indies, Kohli had scripted his 28th Test win as captain.