Paving a new way for the treatment of brain disorders, scientists have created intelligent and bold mice by altering a single gene. An advance that will help in treating Alzheimer's, schizophrenia and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
The unusually intelligent mice were created by altering a single gene and as a result the mice were also less likely to feel anxiety or recall fear. The study, led by researchers at the University of Leeds in UK and Mount Sinai Hospital in Toronto, sheds light on the molecular underpinnings of learning and memory and could form the basis for research into new treatments for age-related cognitive decline, cognitive disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia, and other conditions.
Researchers altered a gene to inhibit the activity of an enzyme called phosphodiesterase-4B (PDE4B), which is present in many organs of the vertebrate body, including the brain. In behavioural tests, the PDE4B-inhibited mice showed enhanced cognitive abilities. They tended to learn faster, remember events longer and solve complex exercises better than ordinary mice. For example, the "brainy mice" showed a better ability than ordinary mice to recognise another mouse that they had been introduced to the day before.
They were also quicker at learning the location of a hidden escape platform in a test called the Morris water maze. The PDE4B-inhibited mice also showed less recall of a fearful event after several days than ordinary mice. The findings are limited to mice and have not been tested in humans, but PDE4B is present in humans, researchers said.
The diminished memory of fear among mice with inhibited PDE4B could be of interest to researchers looking for treatments for pathological fear, typified by PTSD. The PDE4B-inhibited mice also showed less anxiety. They spent more time in open, brightly-lit spaces than ordinary mice, which preferred dark, enclosed spaces. Ordinary mice are naturally fearful of cats, but the PDE4B-inhibited mice showed a decreased fear response to cat urine, suggesting that one effect of inhibiting PDE4B could be an increase in risk-taking behaviour.
Cognitive impairments are currently poorly treated, so I'm excited that our work using mice has identified phosphodiesterase-4B as a promising target for potential new treatments," said Dr Steve Clapcote, from the University of Leeds' School of Biomedical Sciences, who led the study. The researchers are now working on developing drugs that will specifically inhibit PDE4B. These drugs will be tested in animals to see whether any would be suitable for clinical trials in humans.